Erik Erikson and Psychosocial Development
In his theory, eight stages of development unfold
we go through the life span. Each
stage consists of
we must face. These problems are believed to be
points of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential.
more the person resolves their problem successfully, the
healthier developed they are.
is Eriksonís first
newborn requires a feeling of physical comfort and minimal
Autonomy vs. Shame is Eriksonís second stage of development, this occurs in late infancy and toddler hood. After gaining
trust in their peers, infants begin to discover their own actions. They star to assert them selves as an independent. If infants are
from doing so they may develop a sense of shame and doubt.
Aspects of the Psychosocial Domain
1st emotion that can discerned with a newborn is
gradually acquire the capacity to cope with or manage
emotionally arousing situations.
social smile occurs about six weeks of age.
responses become increasingly immediate.
will cry at first, due to over excitation of the nervous system.
are pre-adapted to respond to facial stimuli, speech
past events, anticipate outcome, and behave intentionally.
*An infants emotional reactions respond to events with particular meanings.
*Infants will notice events caused by their behaviors and repeat
these behaviors if the outcome is positive.
tend to have an inclination to fall in step with their caregiverís behaviors.
7 to 10
Babies react negatively to
to 9 Months:
A child is fearful of being
left by the caregiver.
10 to 14 Months: Stranger Wariness- Fear of unfamiliar people.
Learning Theory: a newborns personality is molded as parents reinforce or punish their childís various spontaneous behaviors.
Temperament: refers to an infantís general style of behavior.
general activity level,
irritability, and proneness to distress,
High biological regularity readily approached new objects and people, highly
adaptable, mostly positive in mood.
Moderate regularity, mildly negative reactions to novelty, but adapted after
Difficult Babies: Biologically irregular, tend to withdraw from novelty, low in adaptability, and intense, mostly negative mood.
Secure Attachment: They use their mothers as a secure bases for exploration, seek and receive comfort from them, and show positive emotional responses to them.
Anxious Attachment: when infants are unable to use the caregiver as a secure base for exploration.
Infants have trouble
from their mothers to explore, yet show
toward contact with them.
Infants separate readily
their mothers and avoid them when mothers return
a brief separation.
Infants have no
result of abusive in the infant-caregiver relationship.
tends to predict curiosity, social competence, and self- assurance later in childhood. Where as insecure attachments tend to
correlate with less successful adaptation in these areas.
Care giving Steps for Parents of Newborns and Infants
when they are upset as well as when they are happy (in words or actions), and
what they are trying to do.
and touch them, play with them in a way that lets you follow their lead.
in when children want to play, and pull back when they seem to have enough
that each child is unique.
in mind that from birth, children have different temperaments, that they grow at
their own pace, and that this pace varies from child to child.
At the same time, have positive expectations about what children can do
and hold onto the belief that every child can succeed.
*When a child is enrolled in childcare, a parent should become involved. They should keep in close touch with their childís care providers or teachers about what they are learning.
best way to encourage a child to grow is to give them warm, consistent care so
that they can form secure attachments to those who care for them.
infantís attachment to their mother or primary caregiver is imperative.
Young children who receive highly erratic care are more prone to becoming
very dependent and anxious later in life.
who receive persistently unresponsive care are more likely than other children
to shut down emotionally and to act in ways that keep others at a distance.
who experience warm, responsive care giving are, later in life, more empathetic
they are responded to early in life, they learn something basic about what it
means to be connected with other people.